Explaining the origin of complex phenotypic novelty is the million-dollar question in evolutionary biology.
There’s a problem that biologists have long pondered — how do proteins find other proteins within the cell that they are supposed to interact with?
The study was able to directly measure mutations after they occurred in the plant but before mutations could have been affected by natural selection.
Materialists want us to twist our minds into knots: we’re supposed to describe a world of purpose and direction as if it had no purpose and direction.
Let’s briefly explore one of these crucial enzymes, topoisomerase II, which is the video’s specific focus.