How can a trigonometric mathematical computation be programmed into the brain of an ant through a neo-Darwinian process of genetic mutation and natural selection?
It typically takes up to three generations of butterflies to make the complete journey. This means that the navigation information is genetically programmed.
While these theories may appear reasonable, given the complexity of the behavior it is unclear how a Darwinian process can be a plausible explanation.
Complex programmed behaviors are evident throughout the animal kingdom, but in these pages the focus will primarily be on less advanced animals.