René Descartes conceived of living things as complex machines, a concept now known as the “machine metaphor.”
Complexity (such as we see in a pile of autumn leaves) can arise spontaneously from unguided natural processes, but complex specified information cannot.
Most of us think of science as the enterprise of seeking truth by formulating hypotheses and testing them against the evidence. This is empirical science.
“The human eye is a well-tread [sic] example of how evolution can produce a clunky design,” writes Professor Lents.
In 1991, Richard Dawkins gave a lecture arguing that natural selection can produce complex and seemingly improbable features by an accumulation of small, incremental steps.