For English anatomist Alice Roberts, however, the human body is a “hodge-podge” of parts assembled in an “untidy” fashion “with no foresight” by evolution.
In 1929, child psychologist Jean Piaget called children “artificialists” who tend to regard everything as “the product of human creation.”
René Descartes conceived of living things as complex machines, a concept now known as the “machine metaphor.”
Complexity (such as we see in a pile of autumn leaves) can arise spontaneously from unguided natural processes, but complex specified information cannot.
Most of us think of science as the enterprise of seeking truth by formulating hypotheses and testing them against the evidence. This is empirical science.