Everyone knows that maintaining life requires energy, but most do not appreciate the intricate steps required to harness it.
Protocells place origin-of-life researchers in an awkward position: relying upon an imaginary entity to sustain their belief that only matter and energy exist.
Cell membranes are essential for life because they actively maintain homeostasis, providing a consistent environment inside the cell.
Scientists have been trying for decades to get monomers to link up into biopolymers under “prebiotically plausible conditions.”
Science provides a clear expectation of what natural processes produce, and what we observe in the biopolymers of life is dramatically unexpected.