One might, with Darwin, theorize that the development of the biosphere was simply down to that empirically unattested variant of chance, “natural selection.”
These elements of harvester ant behavior present a severe challenge for the evolutionary paradigm.
The authors criticize the “ultra-Darwinian mindset,” which “perpetuates the notion that the genome, and life itself, is like a Swiss watch.”
Protocells place origin-of-life researchers in an awkward position: relying upon an imaginary entity to sustain their belief that only matter and energy exist.
Universal functional requirements, but without the identity of material components — sounds like design.