Two signaling molecules — strigolactone and ethylene — can work independently to begin the process of leaf senescence.
Granting “rights” to nature — including geological features — profoundly undermines the concept of “rights” itself.
Soil biodiversity is still a black box. Some scientists are beginning to explore the global underground that services the health of plants and animals.
A major study looks for evolution, but finds huge disparities, stasis, gaps, periodic explosions, and miracles of emergence held together with imagination.
Researchers have detected something like REM (rapid eye movement) sleep — which is associated with dreaming in humans — in jumping spiders.