Whether your dog can philosophize is not a puzzle you need to look to the Oxford English Dictionary to resolve.
Chemical signaling in the cell is fairly well known, but what about electrical signaling? Is a cell wired like an electrical network?
Aldous Huxley wrote Brave New World as a dire warning. But we aren’t paying heed.
What if there is genuine directionality in mutation? An important paper addresses the subject.
He concludes that “evolutionary ‘just so’ stories” are examples of “wishful thinking starved of molecular details.”