These incongruent or homoplastic characters are a notorious problem for phylogenetics and contradict the evolutionary prediction of a nested hierarchy.
Computer programmers have adapted some ant problem-solving methods to software programs (but without the need for complex chemical scents).
It typically takes up to three generations of butterflies to make the complete journey. This means that the navigation information is genetically programmed.
The ability to smell is one of the most complex of our senses. It requires sorting, analyzing, and sifting a torrent of input data quickly.
True arthropods are among the most sophisticated animals that appeared without ancestors in the Cambrian explosion.