What ID denies is that every feature of nature is the product of natural forces all the way down. This commitment is necessarily shared by Catholics.
Charles Darwin himself exemplified the Argument from Pique, alluded to in past entries in this series, to a tee.
The fatal flaw with metaphysical vitalism was that it invariably led to circular reasoning.
Turner classifies the intelligent design movement as a resurgence of Platonic idealism.