Two new papers reveal fine-tuning in the assembly of ATP synthase rotary motors and in its operation under ATP hydrolysis.
There’s a problem that biologists have long pondered — how do proteins find other proteins within the cell that they are supposed to interact with?
Swedish scientist Arne Müntzing used two plant species to make a hybrid that underwent chromosome doubling to produce hempnettle, a member of the mint family.
The video draws arrows from one species of fossil horses to the next and says “there is a constant change and we can see it directly through the fossil record.”
As an exercise, count the number of lucky breaks that had to occur for the evolutionary story to work.