What atheists and materialists can’t explain is why this fitness is so special, so unforgivingly precise and intricate, at every stage on the journey to us.
“Consider the toothpicks. If we drop them on the ground and let them scatter randomly, they will have no shape and will thus be uninformative.”
The evolution of many complex traits, such as echo location in whales, requires the modification or creation of numerous proteins, physical structures, and neural connections.
Researchers felt compelled to describe biological information using such phrases as “coding schemes,” “carries meaning,” “core program,” and “hierarchical rules (grammar).”
To provide a deeper understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of information-based arguments, I will delve into the underlying mathematics.