Right now, within your bodies this little engine is cranking away. Without this machine, oxygen-dependent life could not exist.
No one knows how apoptosis came to be, although there are theories. Even the simplest of animals are programmed for it.
New discoveries explore the astonishing efficiency of the cell’s rotary engine ATP synthase, and describe new roles for other motors that deliver ATP.
According to Halsmer, engineering involves “the creative use of resources and ingenuity to accomplish a purpose or solve a problem.” It does so by creating “affordances.”
What if there is genuine directionality in mutation? An important paper addresses the subject.