If organisms resulted from haphazard undirected processes, their design constraints would be few and highly flexible.
Systems biology is taking the biological world by storm, an approach that treats biological systems as optimally or near-optimally engineered systems.
Transposable elements modify gene regulation in maize to confer drought tolerance, alter flowering time, and enable plants to grow in toxic aluminum soils.
The genetic variation in any species is confined to a limited set of variables such as a finch beak’s thickness.
A key question is how long biologists can argue that life looks like a duck, swims like a duck, and quacks like a duck, but it is actually a cat.