For those who wish to caricature the theory of intelligent design, Wallace becomes a very inconvenient historical figure.
Although DNA is involved in specifying the amino acid sequences of proteins, other sources of information are needed to specify the three-dimensional structure of the embryo.
An unexpected defender of Johnson emerged. He was University of Chicago paleontologist David Raup.
Like the Darwinian mechanism, the Lamarckian one appears to work — insofar as it does — by knocking things out, not building them up.
Johnson has now come in for criticism from mathematician Jeffrey Shallit and biochemist Larry Moran.