Although DNA is involved in specifying the amino acid sequences of proteins, other sources of information are needed to specify the three-dimensional structure of the embryo.
An unexpected defender of Johnson emerged. He was University of Chicago paleontologist David Raup.
Like the Darwinian mechanism, the Lamarckian one appears to work — insofar as it does — by knocking things out, not building them up.
Johnson has now come in for criticism from mathematician Jeffrey Shallit and biochemist Larry Moran.
Fox acknowledges what philosopher Thomas Nagel calls the “fiendishly difficult problem” of the origin of life, but he seems to think that, given time, we’ll sort it all out.