Natural selection is not, after all, the one natural process in the universe that can make nature run backward.
In effect, protein engineers are using the power of random change plus intelligent design to see what if anything will improve function.
One of most popular attempts at explaining the flagellum via cooption was developed by Nicholas Matzke.
This book will be an event. Don’t just read Michael Behe’s latest — study it with Dr. Behe himself, in depth.
The contrast between the evolutionary sterility of Lenski’s unintelligent Darwinian evolution and the evolutionary potency of Arnold, Smith, and Winter’s intelligent evolution is striking.