In effect, protein engineers are using the power of random change plus intelligent design to see what if anything will improve function.
In a previous article I described how scientific training can condition some scientists’ minds to resist the evidence in nature for intelligent design.
Douglas Axe is a protein scientist who has published work on the rarity of new protein folds by doing research on beta-lactamase enzymes.
When one wants to modify an enzyme for a new function, as Matti Leisola explains in his new book, there are two ways to go about it.
Consider one of the simplest kinds of homeostasis — just one part of the regulation of sugar metabolism in E coli.