Professor Lenski’s contrasting of the frequency versus importance of evolutionary changes is misconceived and his illustrations are inapt.
Richard Lenski has spent decades overseeing the most extensive, most acclaimed laboratory evolution experiment conducted to date.
Natural selection is not, after all, the one natural process in the universe that can make nature run backward.
In effect, protein engineers are using the power of random change plus intelligent design to see what if anything will improve function.
One of most popular attempts at explaining the flagellum via cooption was developed by Nicholas Matzke.