Materialists argue that dualism of mind and brain is not possible because of causal closure — by which they mean that all physical effects have physical causes.
Hossenfelder’s strongest argument is that many fine-tuning parameters cannot in fact be quantified.
Somehow, G. sulfurreducens “know” how to assemble molecules in their pili in an exact sequential and functional order.
Through reason we can infer the unseen from the seen — everything from the existence of unseen electrons to the existence of an unseen intelligent designer from the evidence of design in nature.
Durham University philosopher Philip Goff poses the question, “Could Electrons Be Conscious?”