In past years, papers have tried to identify the subset of all genes in a genome that are essential for viability.
Rewriting the categories of biological redundancy in terms of function clarifies their purpose and contribution.
The genetic variation in any species is confined to a limited set of variables such as a finch beak’s thickness.
Taking the facts and arguments presented together, it appears to be clear that no macroevolution is happening in “Darwin’s finches.”
They are not, per the National Academy of Sciences, a “particularly convincing example for speciation.”