I hope it’s clear that Kojonen’s effort to harmonize evolution and design (as he envisions it) is not so easy in the case of the bacterial flagellum.
Scientists have learned over the centuries that when a fundamental theoretical impasse is encountered, we do not blame nature.
The subject of biomineralization also allows comparing the explanatory power of design over Darwinian evolution.
At a conference, says Miller, “I removed two parts from a mousetrap (leaving just the base, spring, and hammer), and used that 3-part device as a functional tie-clip.”
Darwin thought everything evolved from a simple cell by mindless chance processes. The animals don’t know that.