Octopus Intelligence Poses Evolutionary Convergence Conundrum
Outstandingly bright — with eyes that strikingly resemble ours — yet their ancestors split from mammals and birds 600 million years ago.
More Implausible Stories about Eye Evolution
Such accounts invoke the abrupt appearance of key features of advanced eyes including the lens, cornea, and iris.
Modern Software and Biological Organisms: Object-Oriented Design
Let’s consider the eye, which is but one of many subsystems (along with the brain, heart, liver, lungs, etc.) in higher animals that coordinate their tasks to keep an organism alive.