Universal functional requirements, but without the identity of material components — sounds like design.
We have affordable pens, stickers that can be placed on laptops or water bottles, and magnets.
A giraffe grows from a zygote to an 18-foot-tall adult while keeping its organs and systems coordinated. Limits to variation is a significant point to clarify.
René Descartes conceived of living things as complex machines, a concept now known as the “machine metaphor.”