Enceladus is an especially fascinating case. Nearly 100 geysers of water ice are currently jetting out of its south pole at supersonic speed.
It’s intriguing that life as we know it depends on a seemingly un-natural distribution of minerals.
There’s more going on in DNA and cells than the old Central Dogma predicted. The time has come to look beyond genes.
Sponges are outliers in biology’s big bang, the Cambrian explosion. Their embryos appear in Precambrian strata, leading some to consider them primitive.
One-third of minerals — chemical solids whose atoms are highly ordered — are created directly or indirectly by life forms.