According to evolutionary biologist Thomas Cavalier-Smith, the idea that DNA contains all the information needed to make an organism “is simply false.”
Consider a scenario where there are three German Shepherds: a mother, her son, and a third that is a genetically engineered clone of the son.
Mathematics has been at the foundation of modern challenges to neo-Darwinism, while those challenges are met mostly with handwaving.
A key characteristic of life is active transport: control over what enters and exits the cell. Closer looks reveal exquisite “selectivity filters” with moving parts that make active transport work.