They stop reactions at optimal times, and scan through products of their reactions with high-tech equipment to find trace amounts of the product they seek.
Jeremey England explained his conjecture that the flow of energy through a chemical system could cause it to self-organize in such a way as to move toward life.
“The selection of one such possibility out of the combinatorically large number of possibilities is a process that requires information.”
In this workshop-like setting, a group of 60 biologists, engineers, medical practitioners, and researchers from related disciplines assembled for three days.
Synthetic organic chemist James Tour, of Rice University, has shown the folly of NASA scientists and others in a number of videos.