It’s been known for some time that bacteria evade antibiotics by mutating the target of the antibiotic, often at a cost to themselves.
A memory of past events helps a cell learn how to respond to recurring threats and protect the genome.
He has a different take on imperfection, one more optimistic than one might expect from someone who writes about what’s wrong with us.
The passionate focus on evolutionary relationships in biology papers tends to obscure awe at the wonders in life.
In effect, protein engineers are using the power of random change plus intelligent design to see what if anything will improve function.