“Coevolutionary processes cannot drive macroevolution,” explains Dr. Miller. “Again it requires intelligent design.”
Theorists hope to alleviate a deficiency in Shannon information theory, which dealt only with the structure of a communication, not its semantics.
The standard evolutionary model is incapable of driving major transformations such as a fish evolving into an amphibian.
Biologists often claim that coevolutionary interactions, as with bees and flowers, can alter the fitness landscape to drive evolutionary changes.