Can you think of an un-designed process that employs external machinery to maintain the state of another machine?
According to Halsmer, engineering involves “the creative use of resources and ingenuity to accomplish a purpose or solve a problem.” It does so by creating “affordances.”
He concludes that “evolutionary ‘just so’ stories” are examples of “wishful thinking starved of molecular details.”
This is the refrain of the book: “It is all or death!” “All or nothing!” Half-solutions are no solutions at all.
You do not need to study mutations for thirty years to predict that bombarding plant chromosomes with radiation will not lead to major agricultural advances.