A theory that “tolerates exceptions” is doing no work at all, simply wandering along behind the data like a puppy on a leash.
Overlapping genes, or “nested coding,” was anticipated by microbiologist Siegfried Scherer.
The cell was a black box to Darwin and his contemporaries. Today we can explore that black box like never before.
Douglas Hofstadter argued in much the same vein as Henry Markham, that the brain can be understand in rules-bound machine terms.
Evolutionary theory predicts lots of “Darwinian detritus” that does nothing for organisms. That prediction keeps coming up false.