It is a difficult question because, setting aside many other problems, the very starting point — the protein-coding gene — is highly complex.
In a previous article I described the evidence that cooption faces insurmountable mathematical challenges in explaining the origins of such complex molecular machines as the bacterial flagellum.
French philosopher René Descartes conceived of living things as complex machines, a concept now known as the “machine metaphor.”
Shapiro accepts the idea of evolution, but he also appreciates that intelligent design is ultimately a way of understanding evolution, the mechanism that drives it.
Histones are responsible for organizing and packaging the DNA of a cell nucleus into structural units known as nucleosomes.