French philosopher René Descartes conceived of living things as complex machines, a concept now known as the “machine metaphor.”
All of this calls to mind a comment from biologist John Mattick, a critic of the junk DNA paradigm.
Scientists watched microbes inherit extreme acid resistance in Yellowstone hot springs not through genetics, but through epigenetics.
Leading lights in origin-of-life research share their work and thoughts in a series of open-access articles about chemical evolution.
This is one key issue on which proponents of ID and of theistic evolution differ.