A central problem for theories of unguided evolution has always been the challenge of building complex biological novelties.
Cancer proves evolution only insofar as one forgets, or pretends not to know, what evolution is supposed to explain.
Wallace was the co-discoverer with Charles Darwin of the theory of evolution by natural selection. He later broke with Darwin over the question of teleology.
The paradigm of cladistic classification based on assumed common ancestry should be reconsidered in favor of a traditional phenetic classification based on maximum similarity.
Many of the oft-cited examples of evolution in action involve devolution.