Skeptics of evolutionary theory have argued that proposed Darwinian processes don’t rise to the level of plausible detailed explanations for the emergence of complex life.
This is one key issue on which proponents of ID and of theistic evolution differ.
Even Richard Dawkins can’t quite shake the idea that a sublime world like ours doesn’t come about by chance, but by “intelligent design.”
Theorists hope to alleviate a deficiency in Shannon information theory, which dealt only with the structure of a communication, not its semantics.
A memory of past events helps a cell learn how to respond to recurring threats and protect the genome.