Cellulose Doesn’t Just Happen
The most abundant biopolymer on Earth requires a host of machines, genes, proteins, and accessories.
The First “Simple” Self-Replicator?
Let’s imagine trying to design something as “simple” as a self-replicating cardboard box.
What if Our Muscles Were Less Powerful?
As every medical student comes to learn when first dissecting the human body at medical school, our limbs are almost entirely composed of muscles.
Nature’s Magic and Its Breathtaking Parsimony
Without this ensemble of fitness in nature, there would be no wood, no fire, no metallurgy, no modern technology.
The Role of Lignin for Fire, Explained
Without lignin, there would be no woody plants, no wood, no coal, no charcoal, no fire, no pottery, and certainly no iron or metallurgy.