Because minds don’t fossilize, anything we think we know about the minds of putative prehumans is speculation.
Jerry Coyne is having a hard time understanding why anyone would even consider taking panpsychism seriously.
The Copernican Principle has been misused to imply that Earth is somehow insignificant. That is a philosophical attitude, unrelated to the science.
James Shapiro’s recent paper points out, with examples, that bacteria meet the Oxford English Dictionary’s definition of “cognitive.”
“Any paper that discusses or describes singularities in the field equations of general relativity is discussing extra-natural objects.”