These elements of harvester ant behavior present a severe challenge for the evolutionary paradigm.
Scientists clash over how to measure animal intelligence: brain volume, brain organization, numbers of neurons…?
Did the science teacher’s octopus really know she was dying? Was she trying to say goodbye?
It typically takes up to three generations of butterflies to make the complete journey. This means that the navigation information is genetically programmed.
Complex programmed behaviors are evident throughout the animal kingdom, but in these pages the focus will primarily be on less advanced animals.