The lure of Lamarck was exemplified most strikingly in the case of Viennese biologist Paul Kammerer and the unhappy affair of the “midwife toad.”
Nature’s prophet and Darwin’s challenger, Wallace’s effort was to restore nature to the “space-spirit hierarchy” it once knew.
Wallace’s formulation of evolution was quite incompatible with Darwin’s. His theory might be called intelligent evolution.
Bertalanffy’s systems-based approach continued under George Klir, and is carried on today by Dr. Richard Sternberg, who studied under Klir.