Scholarship on Spinoza in the last decade has increasingly recognized that he opposed the observational (empirical) and mathematical analyses of nature.
St. Thomas laid the intellectual groundwork for modern natural science — the absolute distinction between existence and essence.
That Darwinism seems even superficially plausible depends completely on the ability of living things to reproduce themselves without significant degradation.
French philosopher René Descartes conceived of living things as complex machines, a concept now known as the “machine metaphor.”
A focus on power, to the neglect of wisdom, is fine, as long as it is recognized that mechanical philosophy is incomplete.