Steve Laufmann and Michael Egnor explore these and other insights at the intersection of biology and engineering.
A paper illustrates the action of DNA loop extrusion processes, which serve multiple functions to maintain the genome, with an interesting graphic: gears.
Like a skilled workman, the cell maintains “An array of tools, each one finely tuned.”
It takes foresight to make complex tools and procedures that can restore the functions of other tools. A blind process can only see the immediate present.