Biologists have wondered how the patterns on butterfly wings change.
Considering several recent papers shows that eliminating evolutionary words and concepts simplifies and improves scientific explanations.
The word “biomimetics” entered the dictionary in 1974. In the 45 years since, scientists have found design inspiration in everything biological from molecules to mammals.
The two also discuss discontinuities in the fossil record as well as Berlinski’s insistence that “any theory of natural selection must plainly meet what I have called a rule against deferred success.”
Miniature designs often require more foresight and delicate engineering than large designs. Examples are abundant in the living world.