He concludes that “evolutionary ‘just so’ stories” are examples of “wishful thinking starved of molecular details.”
This is the refrain of the book: “It is all or death!” “All or nothing!” Half-solutions are no solutions at all.
They reason backwards: Birds evolved, therefore some poorly understood mindless processes must have driven them to evolve.
Watch how easy it is to tell a Darwinian story. If something exists and looks advantageous, it evolved.
Lang and Rice cite a number of articles to show that loss-of-function mutations are just a small minority of those found in studies of organisms.