Dean Schulz investigated the design of the flagellum with a method that could be described as groundbreaking.
The situation resembles a poorly constructed dam holding back water that is continuously rising.
The “long-winged” phenotype is generated if the environmental conditions deteriorate due to reduced food supply or overpopulation.
If organisms resulted from haphazard undirected processes, their design constraints would be few and highly flexible.
Systems biology is taking the biological world by storm, an approach that treats biological systems as optimally or near-optimally engineered systems.