To evolve a protein, Douglas Axe draws a comparison to seeking out — blindfolded! — a particular atom secreted away somewhere in the Milky Way.
Researchers at Uppsala University describe the challenge they face — and that standard Darwinian processes had to face.
You do not need to study mutations for thirty years to predict that bombarding plant chromosomes with radiation will not lead to major agricultural advances.
Lenski agrees that the beneficial mutations seen in his Long Term Evolution Experiment are overwhelmingly degradative or loss-of-function ones.
“Darwin’s mechanism,” Behe shows in the new book, “works chiefly by squandering genetic information for short-term gain.”