Ants, fruit flies, and even plants can also calculate but it does not follow that they are conscious of what they are doing.
We are informed at Nautilus, the Templeton Foundation’s magazine, that “ It’s time to take moral emotion in animals seriously.” Really?
One genuine surprise in recent decades has been the discovery that plants have nervous systems like animals.
Wait. Barash’s hypothesis overlooks the fact that suffering is more than an alarm system. An alarm could be going off in an empty building.