Rewriting the categories of biological redundancy in terms of function clarifies their purpose and contribution.
ID licenses scientists to be curious about non-conserved biological redundancy and to investigate the possibility that biological redundancy is purposeful.
Consider a scenario where there are three German Shepherds: a mother, her son, and a third that is a genetically engineered clone of the son.
For years people cited the wiring of the vertebrate eye as evidence of “poor design” in biology.
Plants are icons of sustainability. They create critical products for other living organisms while utilizing waste products.