A primary reason why many biologists never question the standard evolutionary model is their very limited training in mathematics.
if we are wholly matter, and matter is wholly governed by physical law, there is no room for free will.
Ewert proposes that life is best explained not by Darwin’s hypothesis of an ancestry tree, but by a modern design-inspired hypothesis.
Denis Lamoureux uses classic design language while denying design.
Following Darwin, with an assist from Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, Ken Miller proposes that human reason, consciousness, etc. are exaptations, or “spandrels.”