Charles Darwin always recognized to some extent the problem of removing all vestiges of intelligent causation from evolutionary processes.
Natural selection reveals itself as not just a metaphor but a mixed one: Nature being dumb but nevertheless capable of discrimination.
Explaining the origin of complex phenotypic novelty is the million-dollar question in evolutionary biology.
Complex programmed behaviors are evident throughout the animal kingdom, but in these pages the focus will primarily be on less advanced animals.
Our ability to adapt to fantastically diverse circumstances did not result from the happenstance of environmental conditions.