Marks concedes that a computer code can surprise us — as, for example, when playing the game Go.
The perpetuation of Darwinian ideology comes at the cost of truly grappling with the profound nature of the question of biological origins.
Douglas Hofstadter argued in much the same vein as Henry Markham, that the brain can be understand in rules-bound machine terms.
The error is not completely different from imagining that natural selection really can do what creative intelligence — foresight! — can do.
Even James Lovelock, who created Gaia Theory, now worries that environmentalism has become a religion.