If mutations are the raw material for evolution, they are like explosives with unpredictable effects.
If evolution can’t build something as basic as a new protein fold, how could it build whole new organs and body plans in the history of life?
Ironically, our students may have more intellectual freedom in China to pursue the truth than they would have in many universities in the United States.
It is a difficult question because, setting aside many other problems, the very starting point — the protein-coding gene — is highly complex.
The problem these efforts face in the lab is exactly the problem faced by Darwin’s evolutionary mechanism in the wild.